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oggi è il: 19|09|2014


Chimica e ambiente: il progetto Reach
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Esiste un progetto che fa molto discutere a livello europeo. Come noto l’ultimo secolo ha visto la crescita della produzione chimica in tutti i campi e la conseguente distribuzione di nuove molecole e sostanze nell’ ambiente e nella stessa catena alimentare. Gia molti ricercatori accusano l’aumento di questa presenza come primo responsabile della crescita di alcune malattie, prime fra tutti il cancro, dal momento che si riconosce come le sostanze alloctone abbiano sovente azioni mutagene, teratogene e naturalmente cancerogene. Di fronte a queste denunce e al fatto inoppugnabile che l’industria chimica, una delle maggiori del pianeta per fatturato e produttivita, continui a sfornare sempre nuove sostanze che entrano neH’ambiente, l’Unione Europea ha pensato di istituire un programma di controllo di tutte le molecole chimiche, anche quelle gia conosciute, per provarne la pericolosità. Il progetto si chiama Reach, Registration evaluation and authorisation of chemicals, registrazione valutazione e autorizzazione delle sostanze chimiche. Nel silenzio, tutto sommato, degli organi d’informazione, presi in molte altre banalita, il progetto mira a rin-tracciare circa 30.000 componenti chimici che non sono mai stati sottoposti a test, perche messi in commercio prima del 1981. Del progetto se ne discutera alia riapertura dei lavori del Europarlamento. Se Reach viene approvato le aziende devono fornire indicazioni dettagliate sulle produzioni che superano la quantita di una tonnellata all’anno, e dimostrare di avere stilato dettagliati piani della gestione del rischio. Inoltre per le sostanze piu pericolose, e per quelle di cui non sono ancora noti gli effetti, verranno chieste autorizzazioni speciali. L’attuazione del piano, secondo la Commissione Europea, dovrebbe comportare la spesa di circa 32 miliardi di euro. Al piano si sono opposte dapprima le industrie chimiche europee e subito dopo anche quelle d’oltre oceano, tanto da mobilitare anche l’azione della stessa Casa Bianca, che ha inviato un telegramma del Dipartimento di Stato statunitense indirizzato ai diplo-matici di sede presso i paesi membri dell’Unione Europea. Nel testo, reso pubblico dal Financial Times, Colin Powell avverte i suoi ambasciatori che "il governo statunitense continua a essere allarmato dalla proposta (Reach) che rischia di imporre una spesa sproporzionata e di istituire un sistema di regolamenti cosi complesso da essere difficilmente modificabile. Le esportazioni statunitensi nei maggiori settori industriali, che totalizzano decine di miliardi di dollari, potrebbero venirne danneggiate". L’invito e dunque di fare pressioni sui governi europei per segnalare le preoccupazioni degli Stati Uniti. Naturalmente la posizione e basata, al solito, sul fatto che le sostanze sono permesse negli Stati Uniti e, ovviamente, se sono "sicure" in quel paese non c’e motivo perche altrove ci si preoccupi, per la proprieta transitiva: quello che vale in una nazione vale in tutte quelle che hanno rapporto con quella. In realta se si fa cenno a 30.000 sostanze, secondo la Commissione Europea, sono almeno 100.000 quelle che in un modo o in un altro riescono a sottrarsi alle larghe maglie dei controlli attuali e a pervenire in commercio senza garanzie. Da questo punto di vista gli ambientalisti non possono che condividere e sostenere il progetto, stante la denun-cia del fatto che l’aumento delle pre-senze chimiche, come detto, puo provocare una serie di gravissime patologie. Come l’attivita di Medicina Democratica nella sua storia ha ben documentato. II progetto, pero, ha subito sollevato le proteste degli animalisti in quanto, allo stato attuale, si trattera di usare le metodologie di esperimento con e sugli animali. E un progetto cosi ambizioso nei numeri significherebbe un sacrificio di un grandissimo mime-ro di animali, milioni. Viene contestato dapprima sulla base di un principio scientifico. Ormai sempre piu ricerche e studiosi ammettono che i test effettuati sugli animali non sono significativi perche e noto che la stessa sostanza induce effetti diversi in specie diverse e quindi non vi e certezza che le prove diano risultati sicuramente trasferibili alle persone. Certo questo argomento richiederebbe un approfondito dibattito, ma sicuramente da un certo tempo a questa parte sono reperibili pubblicazioni che contestano l’estendibilita alle persone dei test effettuati sugli animali. Non ultimo il British Medical Journal pubblica i risultati del gruppo Rats, Reviewing Animal Trials, ovvero Riesaminare sistematicamente la sperimentazione animale, che afferma "In linea di principio, non si dovrebbero effettuare nuovi esperimenti sull’efficacia della terapia laser a bassa intensità nel migliorare la guarigione delle ferite, con l’aggravante che in questo caso gli animali sono un modello poco adatto perche non presentando le complicanze tipiche della cicatrizzazione della cute umana; quanto alia trombolisi nell’ischemia acuta, gli studi clinici hanno rivelato un rischio di emorragie intracraniche che non era stato previsto in base ai riscontri negli animali". Continua il rapporto "nei casi esaminati i dati emersi dagli esperimenti sugli animali hanno avu-to un peso cosi irrilevante che verrebbe da chiedersi perche questi siano stati compiuti e mettere in discussione il fatto che fossero dawero indispensabili". Si tratta come si vede di una analisi puntuale di un esperimento, che pero conferma l’assunto gene-rale: quanto possono essere estendibili studi su organismi animali alle donne e agli uomini? Queste motivazioni sono alia base della contestazione della validita scienti-fica di proporre un test per Reach basato sugli animali. La questione diventa ancora piu importante se si considera che l’uso potrebbe essere strumentalizzato nel senso che si potrebbero usare eventuali risultati per cercare di ridurre l’impatto negativo delle molecole sottoposte a prova piuttosto che evidenziarlo. Il sospetto cioe e che i test possono essere utilizzati non a favore della comunita ma a vantaggio degli industriali chimici. In questo senso potrebbe essere letta la proposta di analizzare sostanze di cui gia da tempo se ne conoscono le ricadute sulle persone sugli animali o sull’ambiente. Altre voci sottolineano quanto e importante che si sia creata una nuova sinergia nel senso che adesso le critiche scientifiche si sommano a quelle animaliste, gia da tempo molto vivaci, nel contestare la sperimentazione animale. A questo pro-posito si deve ricordare come la crescente sensibilita nei confronti degli animali spinge per una migliore tutela della loro vita e del loro benessere, anche per quelli usati negli esperimenti. E qui, come detto, si tratterebbe di utilizzare un numero altissimo di individui. II rischio che non si deve correre e quello che gli ambiti scienti-fici, medici e ambientalisti, vedano nelle posizioni animaliste un "oscurantismo" che, in nome della tutela degli animali, metta a repentaglio la vita delle persone. Non e cosi. Va detto chiaramente che esiste un unico interesse generale ed e sicuramente il benessere di tutti i viventi e che, nel realizzarlo, si possono istituire dei percorsi che non siano penalizzanti per gli animali. Controllare le sostanze chimiche e sicuramente necessario, tutti i viventi sono esposti alle loro ricadute negative, occorre pero chiarire che si vuole un protocollo di intervento che sia di vera garanzia. Se non si dimentica che gli esperimenti sugli animali non rappresentano di per se una garanzia estendibile tranquillamente alle donne e agli uomini, se si considera che al contrario possono essere interpretati per diminuire la reale pericolosita di sostanze che rappresentano un grande interesse economico, che queste meto-diche rappresentano un grave momen-to di sofferenza per gli animali coinvolti, e chiaro che la richiesta e unica. II progetto Reach deve svilupparsi e iniziare soltanto dopo aver chiarito senza ombra di dubbio che sara basato su protocolli che adottano l’uso di metodiche alternative all’utilizzo degli animali quali cellule, colture tissutali, analisi comparative con sistemi elettronici, ecc. In altre parole si puo e si deve concordare sul principio di precauzione che e alia base del progetto Reach, ma tutti insieme chiediamo che inizi solo se potra basarsi su metodi alternativi e che questo sia un momento di stimolo per lo sviluppo di un numero maggiore di queste metodiche.

Enrico MORICONI (Medico veterinario, Torino)


Articolo pubblicato sul numero 154-156 di Medicina Democratica
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